Renovating of Maslow’s pyramid of Needs and self- actualization

Narjes Rahnama, Hamid Lotfi


Maslow’s need hierarchy and model of the self- actualizing personality are reviewed and criticized. Pyramid of needs in evolutionary perspective and also developmental , proximate , cognitive- systemic and Christian are studied. According to 3 initial perspective motive hierarchy are physiological needs , protection , affiliation , esteem,  and mate acquisition , mate retention and parenting. In 4th, a hierarchy of needs are homeostasis , safety , protection , feedback and exploration. Self actualization is redefined as the perceived competence to satisfy the basic needs in due time. Material or cognitive incompetence during childhood create subjective incompetence , which in turn inhibits self –actualization.


Maslow’s pyramid of Needs, self- actualization, motive systems, cognitive priority, Developmental priority

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