The Effective and Ineffective Iranian EFL Learners in Employing Listening Strategies

Behnam Arabi Zanjani, Siros Izadpanah


This study was conducted to investigate the performance of effective and ineffective listeners and the possibility of teaching the listening strategies to the learners. A group of 103 Iranian EFL learners participated in this study and answered a general proficiency test of Nelson and 81 students responded to the listening section of TOEFL. Students were classified into effective and ineffective listeners by application of O'Malley et al's subjective criteria and the scores of students in TOEFL. To elicit the listening strategies of each group, listening strategy questionnaire was developed. T-test analysis of the questionnaires (P < .05) showed a meaningful difference between effective and ineffective listeners. The subjects were divided on the basis of their pre listening scores into experimental and control groups. The experimental group received the instruction of listening strategies and control group received the placebo treatment. The treatment included introduction, modelling and practicing the listening strategies. A posttest of listening section of TOFEL was administered to both groups. The results imply that listening strategies can be taught and be useful for students. The study’s findings also confirmed that teaching listening strategies is pedagogically effective, that interactional strategies are more effectively and extensively used, that communication strategies are conducive to language learning, and that language teaching materials with listening strategies are more effective than those without them. Thus, the findings suggest that listening strategies   can facilitate the process of learning.



effective listening strategy ;ineffective listening strategy; language proficiency ; listening proficiency; listening Strategies; metacognitive awareness.

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