The Application of Transcultural Counseling Principles and Practices in Developing Countries Through a Lay Counselor Training Approach

David Kirk Carson

Abstract


Mental health treatment in developing countries is sorely lacking.  There is, with few exceptions, a dearth of mental health services and professionals in the developing world.  High population densities, poverty and underemployment, disease, pollution and unhygienic environments, rurality, the frequency of natural disasters, and other factors present many challenges to people in resource limited nations.  However, there is increasing evidence that appropriately trained lay counselors within the culture can have a major impact on individuals, families, and communities in the developing world.  This article highlights how transcultural principles of counseling, as postulated by the author, can be applied to people’s lives through the training of lay counselors.  Also examined are some of the changes that need to take place in lay counselor training efforts in developing countries, with implications to professional counselors and therapists conducting lay training in international settings.

 


Keywords


Transcultural Counseling; Lay Counselor Training; Developing Countries

Full Text:

PDF

References


Barrett, L. (2018). How emotions are made. New York: Mariner Books.

Carson, D.K. (2017). Lay counselor training in developing countries: Needs, approaches, and impact on quality of life. International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies, 5(2), 82-88.

Carson, D.K. (2018). Trauma-focused lay counselor training for disaster mental health care in developing countries. International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies, 6(7), 105-118.

Carson, D.K., & Becker, K.W. (2003). Creativity in psychotherapy: Reaching new heights with individuals, couples, and families. Clifton, NJ: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.

Carson, D.K., & Chowdhury, A. (2018). The potential impact of family life education and lay counselor training on poverty in developing countries: The example of India. International Journal of Community Development, 6(1), 5-20.

Carson, D.K., & Casado-Kehoe, M. (2011). Creative/experiential therapy with couples. In D.K. Carson & M. Casado-Kehoe, Case studies in couple’s therapy: Theory-based approaches (pp. 229-247). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.

Carson, D.K., Jain, S., & Ramirez, S. (2009). Counseling and family therapy in India: Evolving professions in a rapidly developing nation. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 31, 45-56.

Carson, D.K., Lawson, D.A., Casado-Kehoe, M., & Wilcox, D.A. (2011). International lay counselor training: A short-term training the trainer’s program for Christian leaders and workers in developing countries. Denver, CO: Outskirts Press.

Carter, R.T. (Ed.) (2008). Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling: Training and practice (Vol. 2). New York: Wiley.

d’Ardenne, P., & Mahtani, A. (1999). Transcultural counseling in action (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, VA: Sage Pub.

Dewing, S., Matthews, C., Cloete, A., Schaay, N., & Simbayi, L. (2014). Lay counselors' ability to deliver counseling for behavior change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82(1), 19-29.

Fox, J.L. (Ed.) (2018). Transcultural psychiatry. New York: Routledge.

Greenberg, L S., & Goldman, R.N. (Eds.) (2018). Clinical handbook of emotion-focused therapy. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Greenberg, L.S., Watson, J.C., & Lietaer, E.O. (Eds.) (1998). Handbook of experiential psychotherapy. New York: Guilford.

Hohenshil, T.H. (Ed.) (2013). Counseling around the world: An international handbook. Washington, D.C.: Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Johnston, E., & Olson, L. (2015). The feeling brain: The biology and psychology of emotions. New York: Norton.

Juen, B., Siller, H., Lindenthal, M., Snider, L., & Nielsen, M. (2013). Lay counselling in humanitarian organisations: A field report on developing training materials for lay counsellors. International Journal of Mental Health, Psychosocial Work and Counselling in Areas of Armed Conflict, 11(1), 77-88.

Kagee, A. (2012). Addressing psychosocial problems among persons living with HIV. African Journal of Psychiatry, 15(6), 424-426.

Keats, P.A., & Sharma, A. (2014). Canadian and Nepali counsellors: In collaboration for social justice in Nepal. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 48(3), 284-299.

Kinsley, D.R. (1996). Health, healing, and religion: A cross cultural perspective. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Lago, C. (2011). The handbook for transcultural counselling and psychotherapy. England: Open University Press.

Levine, P. A. (2010). In an unspoken voice: How the body releases trauma and restores goodness. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

McFadden, J. (1999). Transcultural counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Mills, C. (2013). Decolonizing global mental health. New York: Routledge.

Moldavasky, D. (2003). The implication of transcultural psychiatry in clinical practice. Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 40(1), 47-56.

Moodley, R., Gielen, U.P., & Wu, R. (Eds,) (2012). Handbook of counseling and psychotherapy in an international context. New York: Routledge.

Moodley, R., Lengyell, M., Wu, R., & Gielen, U.P. (Eds,) (2015). International counseling case studies handbook. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Nadkarni, A., Vellerman, R., Dabholkar, H., Shinde, S., & Bhat, B. (2015). The systematic development and pilot randomized evaluation of counselling for alcohol problems: A lay counselor-delivered psychological treatment for harmful drinking in primary care in India (The PREMIUM Study). Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 39(3), 522-531.

Neuner, F., Onyut, P.L., Ertl, V., Odenwald, M., Schauer, E. and Elbert, T. (2008) Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder by trained lay counselors in an African refugee settlement: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 686-694.

Ng, K.S. (2014). Global perspectives in family therapy. New York: Routledge.

Patel, V., Chowdhary, N., Rahman, A., & Verdeli, H. (2011). Improving access to psychological treatments: Lessons from developing countries. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(9), 523-528.

Patel, V., Minas, H., Cohen, A., & Prince, M.J. (Eds.) (2014). Global mental health principles and practice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Patel, V., & Thara, R. (Eds.) (2003). Introduction: The role of NGO's in mental health care. In V. Patel & R. Thara (Eds.), Meeting the mental health needs of developing countries: NGO innovations in India (pp. 1-19). New Delhi, India: Sage.

Patel, V., Weiss, H.A., Chowdhary, N., Naik, S., & Pednekar, S. (2010). Effectiveness of an intervention led by lay health counselors for depressive and anxiety disorders in primary care in Goa, India (MANAS): A cluster randomized controlled trial. The Lancet, 376(9758), 2086-2095.

Pedersen, P.B., Lonner, W.J., & Draguns, J.G., Trimble, J.E., & Scharron-del Rio, M.R. (Eds.) (2015). Counseling across cultures (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub.

Raio, C.M., et al. (2013). Cognitive emotional regulation fails the stress test. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110 (37), 15139-15144.

Rastogi, M., & Thomas, V. K. (2008). Multicultural couple therapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub.

Smith, T.W. (2016). The book of human emotions. London, England: Wellcome Collection.

Stutterheim, J. (2015). Mind matters: The impact of poverty on mental health. Retrieved from https://www.children.org/archive/2015/apr/mind-matters-the-impact-of-poverty-on-mental-health.

Tan, S-Y., & Scalise, E.T. (2016). Lay counseling: Equipping Christians for a helping ministry. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

United Nations Development Programme (2018). Poverty reduction and livelihoods promotion. Retrieved from: http://www.in.undp.org/content/india/en/home/operations/projects/poverty_reduction.html.

World Health Organization (2001). Mental health: stop exclusion - dare to care. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/world-health-day/previous/2001/en/.

Weiner, D.J. (1999). Beyond talk therapy: Using movement and expressive techniques in clinical practice. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.