The Effect of Textual Enhancement through Technology on the Intake of Active and Passive Voice and Belief about Grammar Instruction

Karim Shabani, Elahe Mashayekh Bakhshi, Samaneh Samarghandi


The study was an attempt to look into the effect of technology-enhanced input through multimedia (power point presentation) on intermediate male and female learners’ intake of active and passive tenses as well as gender differences. Moreover, it was aimed to explore the learners’ perceptions about technology-based grammar learning. This research was conducted within approximately two months including eight two-hour sessions of instruction in Kish Air institute in Chalous, Iran. 60 homogenous students were divided into one control and one experimental groups. The experimental group received enhanced input through multimedia instruction (power point presentation), whereas the control group was exposed to non-enhanced input via whiteboard and teacher’s explanation (traditionally). The results revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group. Moreover, it was found that there was a positive change in the learners’ beliefs regarding the application of technology. However, gender differences were found not to be as significant as expected since both male and female groups had almost the same response to the treatment sessions. Findings suggest that learning a new grammatical form through form-focused strategies (i.e. using enhanced input which is highlighted, bolded, or underlined) and power point presentation (PPT) give teachers the chance to save time in the classroom and allocate more time to less-skilled learners.


Focus on form (FONF), focus on forms (FONFs), intake, textual enhancement (TE), Computer-assisted language learning (CALL), Power point presentation (PPT).

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