A Comparison between Spiritual Intelligence and Hope to Life of Physical Education Student and Other Students of Azad University-Islamshahr Branch

Mohammad Afshar, Saeed Sedaghati, Farideh Hadavi


The purpose of this research is to compare the spiritual intelligence and hope life of physical education students and other students in Islamic Azad University of Islamshahr. This research from the objective point of view is a practical and from strategical point of view is a case-comparison kind of research. Statistical community has been chosen including all group of the students of the university (21350) and 480 (220 of physical Education and 260 of other students) as the model of research – with the stratified-random sampling were chosen. The research instruments was including questionnaire of spiritual intelligence of badie et al. (2010) with alpha coefficient of Cronbakh of (0.817) and questionnaire of hope to life of miller (1998) with alpha coefficient of Cronbakh of (0.85). The student field of study was considered as an independent variable and spiritual intelligence and hope to life were considered as dependent variables of research. Descriptive statistical indices has been used in order to describe data. In addition Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for determination of normality of data distribution, Single-Sample t- test for comparing averages and independent t-tests for determination of differences between variables have been used. The research results showed that: The average of spiritual intelligence and the same of it’s elements like overall thoughts and faithfulness and self-awareness, love and interest in non-physical education students is higher than physical education students and there is a significant difference between physical education students and other students. In addition the average of hope to life and some elements of spiritual intelligence like the ability of confrontation with problems and interaction with moral qualities in physical education students in higher than other students and there is a significant difference between these two groups (α=0.05). Therefore it is suggested that managers and authorities of Islamshahr university with organizing seminars-workshops and classes and also cultural-religious comps provide the basics for increasing of spiritual intelligence of physical education students and with creating the conditions of developing sport activities in universities and taking part of other students in these programs, increase the hope to life in them.


Spiritual intelligence, Hope to life, Students.

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