A Comparative Study of the Competency and Authorities of Legislatures in Iran, France and America

Elham Alinya, Moslem Aghaei Togh

Abstract


In the countries, Iran, France and America, which are studied in this article, separation of powers is accepted and general structure of the governments consist of the legislature, executive and judiciary branches. In Islamic Republic of Iran, executive branch is one pillar, so that president as the chiefexecutive is in charge of council of ministers; and council of ministers have to gain vote of confidence from legislature branch. Moreover, ministers are politically in charge in front of the president and the parliament. The president is politically in charge in front ofIslamic Consultative Assembly and thesupreme leader; and he is directly appointed by vote of people. In this regard, he has extensive executive and political authorities. Legislation is duty of Islamic Consultative Assembly. In France, executive branch is two pillar which includes of chief executive in one hand and prime minister and council of ministers on the other hand. The cabinet of president is officially accepted by confidence vote of Member of Parliament; and it is politically in charge in front of legislative branch. President as chief executive of executive branch is directly selected by people vote, but does not have any political responsibility. He has numerous authorities; for instance, chairman of the state, introducing and dismissal of ministers, suspended veto of legislations of parliament and even dissolving national assembly are some of the president authorities. He also can provide the plan of vote of no confidence through interpellation. In United States, power is divided between president and congress. In this country, branches of powers are totally separated. Executive branch is one pillar and president and ministers are not politically in charge in front of congress and ministers are only in charge in front of the president. Executive branch can dissolve the congress. Congress on United States which consists of house of representative and senate which have common responsibilities and authorities such as legislation, revision of constitution and executive supervision.


Keywords


Assembly, Legislation, Supervision, Comparative Law, Legislative Authorities

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